Broadly defined here as research and development at the atomic or molecular scale (1-100 nm) - is one of today's fastest growing technologies. The ability to design materials at this level is leading to novel products with wide-ranging applications. As with any developing field of science, nanotechnology presents the scientific community with a host of technical challenges, but also presents inventors with new hurdles when trying to patent their inventions.
A nanometer is used to measure things that are very small. Atoms and molecules, the smallest pieces of everything around us, are measured in nanometers. And a lot of important things happen at the nanometer scale. We can think of the smell of freshly baked cookies and that is something that happens on the nanometer scale. The molecules that are released from the cookie when it bakes are less than a nanometer in size and so they are carried through the air to our noses because they are so small. Gravity does not have much of an effect on them and so they float along. They reach our noses and when they are very very close, less than a nanometer away, we can smell them. Nanoscience has taken scientists around the world by storm. It claims to revolutionize the world we live in with radical breakthroughs in areas such as materials and manufacturing, electronics, medicine and healthcare, environment and energy, chemical and pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture, computation and information technology.
Nanoparticles are larger than individual atoms and molecules but are smaller than bulk solid. Hence they obey neither absolute quantum chemistry nor laws of classical physics and have properties that differ markedly from those expected. Due to the two unique phenomenon which occurs in nanoparticles, their properties (electrical, optical, chemical, mechanical, magnetic, e.t.c.) can be selectively controlled by engineering the size, morphology, and composition of the particles. These new substances will have enhanced or entirely different properties from their parent materials.